Association of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene and approach-related personality traits: meta-analysis and new data
Munafò MR, Yalcin B, Willis-Owen SA, Flint J.
Department of Experimental Psychology,
University of Bristol,
Bristol, United Kingdom.
Biol Psychiatry. 2008 Jan 15;63(2):197-206.


BACKGROUND: Two variants in the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene have been reported to be associated with human approach-related traits such as novelty seeking and extraversion. However, the strength of evidence for this association remains uncertain. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis of published studies of the association between the DRD4 gene variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) and C-521T polymorphisms and human approach-related personality traits, including novelty seeking, extraversion, and impulsivity, restricted to adult samples recruited from nonpsychiatric populations, and extended on this literature by attempting to confirm any evidence of association in a replication sample (n = 309) selected for extreme scores on the extraversion subscale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire from a large (n = 40,090) population-based sample. RESULTS: Our initial meta-analysis supported the association of the DRD4 C-521T polymorphism, but not the VNTR polymorphism, with approach-related traits. This conclusion was qualified by evidence of significant publication bias and the failure to detect association in a replication sample comprising individuals at the extremes of the trait distribution. The association of the C-521T polymorphism observed in our initial meta-analysis was robust to the inclusion of these new data, but our revised meta-analysis indicated that the association was present for measures of novelty seeking and impulsivity but not for measures of extraversion. CONCLUSIONS: The DRD4 gene may be associated with measures of novelty seeking and impulsivity but not extraversion. The association of the C-521T variant with these measures, if genuine, may account for up to 3% of phenotypic variance.
James Watson
Maurice Wilkins
Rosalind Franklin
Personal genomics
Genetic enhancement
Ashkenazi intelligence
Eugenics before Galton
Scandanavian eugenics
The literature of eugenics
Human self-domestication
Germline genetic engineering
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis
A life without pain? Hedonists take note'
Francis Galton and contemporary eugenics
Gene therapy and performance enhancement
5-HTT and AP-2beta gene polymorphism/spirituality

and further reading

BLTC Research
Utopian Surgery?
The Good Drug Guide
The Abolitionist Project
The Hedonistic Imperative
The Reproductive Revolution
MDMA: Utopian Pharmacology
Critique of Huxley's Brave New World