Genes associated with Parkinson syndrome
Biskup S, Gerlach M, Kupsch A, Reichmann H, Riederer P,
Vieregge P, Wüllner U, Gasser T.
Dept. of Neurodegenerative Diseases,
Hertie-Institute for Clinical Brain Research,
University of Tübingen,
Tübingen, Germany.
J Neurol. 2008 Sep;255 Suppl 5:8-17.


Genetic findings have changed our views on Parkinson's disease (PD) and parkinsonism, which will be collectively referred to as Parkinsonian Syndrome (PS) in the present manuscript. Mutations in several genes are found to cause monogenic forms of the disorder. Point mutations, duplications and triplications in the alpha-synuclein gene cause a rare dominant form of PS in families. Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene have been identified as a much more common cause for dominant PS, especially in certain ethnic groups, while mutations in the parkin gene, in DJ-1, PINK1 and ATP13A2 cause autosomal recessive parkinsonism of early onset. The monogenic variants are important tools in identifying cellular pathways that also shed light on the molecular pathogenesis of sporadic PS and some of these genes may play a role in the etiology of the common sporadic form of PS. Here we add recent findings to a greatly challenging puzzle.
Eugenics talk
Private eugenics
'Saviour siblings'
Personal genomics
Alzheimers Disease
Psychiatric genetics
Human self-domestication
Selecting potential children
Brain size/human evolution
Alzheimer's disease: resources
Transhumanism/Brave New World?
Francis Galton and contemporary eugenics
Gene therapy and performance enhancement
Preimplantation genetics and stem cell therapy

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Utopian Surgery?
The Good Drug Guide
The Abolitionist Project
The Hedonistic Imperative
The Reproductive Revolution
MDMA: Utopian Pharmacology
Critique of Huxley's Brave New World